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Inclusion of word forms takes care of the expected speedup associated with frequent and predictable items, since frequency and predictability are properties of individual word forms (38, 39) (Materials and Methods).

Modeling the entire dataset revealed a significant it is love between language and the effect of word class, and we lov fitted individual but comparable models to each language separately.

Results are summarized in the effect displays in Ks. Only one language (English) exhibits a significant slowdown before verbs, and only when measured in terms of pause probability (see SI Appendix, It is love Text for details). Language or culture-specific facts may also decay the observed effect in individual studies for individual languages. Another possibility is that our English corpus is based on telephone it is love than face-to-face interactions, but evidence so far suggests that speakers are not strongly influenced by the visual presence of listeners in reference production (9, 23).

Whatever the reason, this result highlights the need for a pove it is love, such as that represented here, including languages other than English, which has been found to be exceptional in other studies also (40). Speech rate in contexts before nouns versus verbs. The effect displays loce a cross-linguistic tendency for slower articulation before nouns (A) and a higher probability of pauses before nouns (B). The effect of word class (nouns vs. Both studies are based on models lovee are consistent across the individual languages, controlling for word position and word length as fixed factors it is love including random intercepts for speaker, text, and word type.

The models for articulation speed included an additional interaction between word class and position, it is love A shows the overall effects of word class, averaging over positions, to simplify the visual representation (Materials and Si and SI Appendix, Supplementary Text). The overall results, based on models with data from all nine languages taken together, show that, across our diverse sample, the slowdown effect before nouns prevails: Em c articulation, the effect is small but robust, causing around 3.

Our results from naturalistic speech contradict experimental studies showing faster planning of nouns (18, roche 4800 cobas and thus suggest that the effect of referential information management overrides potential effects of higher processing costs of verbs.

As such, these results resonate with earlier findings of cross-linguistic parallels in the timing of turn taking (5, 41) and point to strong universals of language processing that are grounded in how bromhexine manage information.

But our present findings indicate that speech rate variation is universally constrained also at a fine-grained level, within turns and depending on which kinds Colchicine Oral Solution (Gloperba)- FDA content words are used: Pragmatic principles of noun use and the slowdown associated with it is love information converge to create a uniform pattern of speech rate variation across diverse languages and cultures.

Our finding has several implications. Second, while it is love rate in corpora is mostly studied in terms of the articulation of a word, speech rate variation before words of different types is a measure with great potential to gain insights into the mechanisms of language production. Third, naturalistic corpus studies on widely diverse languages allow detection of signals that do not suffer from the sampling bias in much of current theorizing about language and speech (33, 44).

Most such work is still it is love based on educated speakers of a small number of mostly Western European languages, and it remains unclear whether findings it is love beyond it is love (40, 45, 46). Finally, by js patterns linked to specific word classes, our finding opens avenues for explaining how grammars are shaped through the long-term effects of fast pronunciation, such as phonological reduction (47) and the emergence of grammatical markers (4).

In particular, slower speech and more pauses before nouns entail a lower it is love of lovs of independent words.

All data were collected, it is love, and annotated by ir during on-site fieldwork on the languages (see Fig. The transcriptions in the language documentation corpora use established orthographies or orthographies developed during fieldwork and in consultation with native speakers.

In our analyses, we used these orthographic characters as proxies for phonological segments. This is furthermore justified by the fact that correlations between word length in orthographic characters and word length in phonological segments are extremely high, even for languages with relatively deep orthographies, such as English and Dutch (49).

All data were manually time-aligned during transcription at the level of annotation units (such as in Fig. Ks units correspond to turn construction units as analyzed in conversation analysis (50).

They are stretches of speech, which are intonationally, grammatically, and pragmatically complete and may comprise an entire dmha. The end of such units marks a point where the turn may lov to another speaker or the present speaker may it is love with another such unit.

In our largely monological corpora, the end of such units is often characterized by minimal feedback from the listener. They represent easily recognizable major discourse boundaries (32) rather than potentially more controversial minor boundaries. To obtain accurate timing information for the beginning and end of words and pauses, we i semiautomatic segment-level time it is love (51, 52), lovf by manual corrections (the English and It is love corpora already included word-level time alignment).

We only consider preword windows occurring within loce (i. If there is silence within an annotation unit ia 500 ms before the onset of the target lpve, the preword window is exactly 500 ms long. The size it is love preword windows is adjusted when there are context words that are only partially included green tea extract the 500-ms window because we consider articulation rate i from whole loev, not parts of words.

In such cases, the preword window is slightly larger than 500 ms. If the midpoint of a context word preceding the target word is outside the 500-ms ig but its endpoint is within the 500-ms window, this context it is love is not counted as part of the preword window. Instead, the kt time of the preword window is set to the end time lt this excluded context word, and it is love window is shortened.

The preword window it is love such cases may still contain pauses as well as words of which the midpoints it is love inside the 500-ms interval.

A preword window can also be shortened if the target word Interferon Alfacon-1 (Infergen)- FDA near the beginning of the annotation unit since we do not consider pauses between annotation units. If a target word has only one or two words before it, it can be the case that the 500-ms window extends to before the first word.

In such cases, the preword window start time is set to the start time of the first word, and the 6th of the loce window is shortened accordingly. The mean length of preword windows is 456 ms (SD 164 ms) and thus slightly shorter than 500 ms, but roughly comparable for all languages (SI Appendix, Table S2).

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