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Most N fixed in root nodules, as ammonia, is converted patio ureides (allantoin and allantoic acid), which are the main forms of N exported to aboveground plant patio (Collier and Tegeder, 2012).

Once patio the leaves, ureides may be converted to urea, via the purines degradation pathway, being then metabolized by urease (Zrenner et al. The urease pathway is thus the first biological reaction in which Ni plays an important role. Nitrogenase not only reduces N2 to ammonia, but also produces molecular hydrogen. The hydrogenase pathway is the second biological reaction in which Ni is required.

The patio of Ni as a micronutrient has been demonstrated under greenhouse conditions (Dixon et al. Koch) to Ni deficiency patio et al. Ruter (2005) also observed Ni deficiency under field conditions in river birch plants (Betula nigra L.

Nickel deficiency patio these plants occurred in soils poor in extractable Ni. Even though plants usually have a low demand for this micronutrient (Seregin and Kozhevnikova, 2006), it can be expected that Ni-poor soils might also cause a hidden (or latent) deficiency in other plant species (Wood, 2013).

Under such circumstances, plants would patio express their maximum growth potential even without any deficiency symptoms, as visible lesions are the last step of a series of metabolic problems. Soybean is a summer crop of a great economic and social importance worldwide, being the major source of vegetable oil (Food Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2017).

Cultivation of this crop is common on soils low in extractable Ni (Licht et al. Because of that, a hidden deficiency of this micronutrient can be predicted. In addition, the patio dependence of this legume on BNF may further increase its demand for Ni. Recent studies have demonstrated that fertilization with Ni can increase N assimilation and N metabolite levels in plants (Tan et al.

In soybean, this effect in N metabolism (Kutman et al. Furthermore, patio a limited number of genotypes were tested.

Likewise, it is also not yet documented if responses to Ni are dependent on the environment or if soybean genotypes show a differential responsiveness when fertilized with Ni. Considering the dependence of soybean on BNF and an often-low content of extractable Ni patio soils, the hypothesis of patio study was that Ni fertilization in soybean genotypes, under greenhouse and field conditions, promotes patio growth and physiological activity, alleviating situations of hidden Ni deficiency.

In order to verify Ni-fertilization effects in soybean plants, two simultaneous experiments were performed (from November 2015 to March 2016) with genotypes that are not only important in local farming practices, roche e labdoc also have a wide range of genetic patio for grain yield.

In this experiment, 15 soybean genotypes and two near-isogenic lines (NILs) were fertilized with 0. Positive urease (Eu3) and corpus luteum activity-null (eu3-a, formerly eu3-e1) NILs only differ between each other in the integrity of the UreG gene, which codifies an accessory protein necessary to Patio incorporation into urease (Tezotto et al. Summary of characteristics for 15 patio genotypes and two near-isogenic lines with urease-positive (Eu3) and urease activity-null (eu3-a).

The NILs (Eu3 patio eu3-a) were not cultivated in the field experiment. In the greenhouse experiment, soybean plants were cultivated in 4-L pots filled with soil collected patio a patio forest. Before sowing, soil pH was adjusted to 6.

Nickel treatments comprised a control-0. Soybean plants obtained N through inoculation of patio with N2-fixing bacteria (Bradyrhizobium japonicum, strain SEMIA 5079 and Bradyrhizobium elkanii, strain SEMIA 5019). Patio physical and chemical characteristics after soil fertilization and pH correction are listed on Table 2. The pots were irrigated and the water content in soil was adjusted daily near to the field capacity by weighing to a constant weight.

In the field experiment, patio plants were cultivated in 15-m2 plots (6 lines of 6. The experimental site is located at an altitude of 665 m. Nickel fertilization was performed via soil patio a rate of 1.

A control treatment, patio. Soybean plants acquired N patio inoculation of seeds with N2-fixing bacteria (B. Soil's physicochemical characteristics patio fertilization are described in Patio 2.

Expanded leaves in the flowering stage, i. For patio in the greenhouse experiment, patio plants per pot were collected, while five plants per plot were collected, pooled, and divided into uniform sub-samples for analyses in the field experiment.

Soybean grains produced in each experiment patio harvested and patio for grain yield determination. In the greenhouse, yield estimate was done by collecting grains produced by each plant in patio pot, divided by the number of plants, while in the field, grain patio was assessed by harvesting the two central lines of soybean in patio plot.

The moisture was determined with an automatic measuring device (Gehaka G650i, Patio. For determination of Ni, 0. The final Ni concentration was determined through inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (Perkin Elmer Optima 5300, US). For patio of N, 0.

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